Operating Systems

Operating Systems:

Modern computer operating systems may be classified into three groups, which are distinguished by the nature of interaction that takes place between the computer user and his or her program during its processing. The three groups are called batch, time-sharing and real-time operating systems.

1) Batch Processing Operating System:

In a batch processing operating system environment users submit jobs to a central place where these jobs are collected into a batch, and subsequently placed on an input queue at the computer where they will be run. In this case, the user has no interaction with the job during its processing, and the computer’s response time is the turnaround timethe time from submission of the job until execution is complete, and the results are ready for return to the person who submitted the job.

2) Time Sharing Operating System:

Another mode for delivering computing services is provided by time sharing operating systems. In this environment a computer provides computing services to several or many users concurrently on-line. Here, the various users are sharing the central processor, the memory, and other resources of the computer system in a manner facilitated, controlled, and monitored by the operating system. The user, in this environment, has nearly full interaction with the program during its execution, and the computer’s response time may be expected to be no more than a few second.

3) Real Time Operating System (RTOS):

The third class is the real time operating systems, which are designed to service those applications where response time is of the essence in order to prevent error, misrepresentation or even disaster. Examples of real time operating systems are those which handle airlines reservations, machine tool control, and monitoring of a nuclear power station. The systems, in this case, are designed to be interrupted by external signals that require the immediate attention of the computer system.

These real time operating systems are used to control machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. An RTOS typically has very little user-interface capability, and no end-user utilities. A very important part of an RTOS is managing the resources of the computer so that a particular operation executes in precisely the same amount of time every time it occurs. In a complex machine, having a part move more quickly just because system resources are available may be just as catastrophic as having it not move at all because the system is busy.

4) Multiprogramming Operating System:

A multiprogramming operating system is a system that allows more than one active user program (or part of user program) to be stored in main memory simultaneously. Thus, it is evident that a time-sharing system is a multiprogramming system, but note that a multiprogramming system is not necessarily a time-sharing system. A batch or real time operating system could, and indeed usually does, have more than one active user program simultaneously in main storage. Another important, and all too similar, term is “multiprocessing”.

5) Multiprocessing Operating System:

A multiprocessing system is a computer hardware configuration that includes more than one independent processing unit. The term multiprocessing is generally used to refer to large computer hardware complexes found in major scientific or commercial applications.

6) Networking Operating System:

A networked computing system is a collection of physical interconnected computers. The operating system of each of the interconnected computers must contain, in addition to its own stand-alone functionality, provisions for handing communication and transfer of program and data among the other computers with which it is connected.

Network operating systems are not fundamentally different from single processor operating systems. They obviously need a network interface controller and some low-level software to drive it, as well as programs to achieve remote login and remote files access, but these additions do not change the essential structure of the operating systems.

7) Distributed Operating System:

A distributed computing system consists of a number of computers that are connected and managed so that they automatically share the job processing load among the constituent computers, or separate the job load as appropriate particularly configured processors. Such a system requires an operating system which, in addition to the typical stand-alone functionality, provides coordination of the operations and information flow among the component computers. The networked and distributed computing environments and their respective operating systems are designed with more complex functional capabilities. In a network operating system, the users are aware of the existence of multiple computers, and can log in to remote machines and copy files from one machine to another. Each machine runs its own local operating system and has its own user (or users).

A distributed operating system, in contrast, is one that appears to its users as a traditional uni-processor system, even though it is actually composed of multiple processors. In a true distributed system, users should not be aware of where their programs are being run or where their files are located; that should all be handled automatically and efficiently by the operating system.

True distributed operating systems require more than just adding a little code to a uni-processor operating system, because distributed and centralised systems differ in critical ways. Distributed systems, for example, often allow program to run on several processors at the same time, thus requiring more complex processor scheduling algorithms in order to optimise the amount of parallelism achieved.

8) Operating Systems for Embedded Devices:

As embedded systems (PDAs, cellphones, point-of-sale devices, VCR’s, industrial robot control, or even your toaster) become more complex hardware-wise with every generation, and more features are put into them day-by-day, applications they run require more and more to run on actual operating system code in order to keep the development time reasonable. Some of the popular OS are:
  • Nexus’s Conix – an embedded operating system for ARM processors.
  • Sun’s Java OS – a standalone virtual machine not running on top of any other OS; mainly targeted at embedded systems.
  • Palm Computing’s Palm OS – Currently the leader OS for PDAs, has many applications and supporting companies.
  • Microsoft’s Windows CE and Windows NT Embedded OS.